Phy 109: Heat & Thermodynamics, Structure of Matter, Waves & Oscillations and Physical Optics

Credit Hours: 4:00 (Level-1, Term-1, CSE )


Heat & Thermodynamics: Principle of temperature measurements: Platinum resistance thermometer, Thermo-electric thermometer, Pyrometer; Kinetic theory of gases: Maxwell's distribution of molecular speeds, Mean free path, Equipartition of energy, Brownian motion, Van der Waal's equation of state, Review of the First Law of Thermodynamics and its application, Reversible and irreversible processes, Second Law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle; Efficiency of heat engines, Carnots theorem, Entropy and disorder, Thermodynamic functions, Maxwell relations, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Gibbs phase rule, Third Law of Thermodynamics.


Structure of Matter: Crystalline and non-crystalline solids, Single crystal and polycrystal solids, Unit cell, Crystal systems, Co-ordinations number, Crystal planes and directions, NaCl and CsCl structure, Packing factor, Miller indices, Relation between interplanar spacing and Miller indices, Bragg's Law, Methods of determination of interplanar spacing from diffraction patterns; Defects in solids: Point defects, Line defects; Bonds in solids, Interatomic distances, Calculation of cohesive and bonding energy; Introduction to band theory: Distinction between metal, Semiconductor and insulator.


Waves & Oscillations: Differential equation of a simple harmonic oscillator, Total energy and average energy, Combination of simple harmonic oscillations, Lissajous figures, Spring- mass system, Calculation of time period of torsional pendulum, Damped oscillation, Determination of damping co-efficient. Forced oscillation, Resonance, Two-body oscillations, Reduced mass, Differential equation of a progressive wave, Power and intensity of wave motion, Stationary wave, Group velocity and phase velocity, Architectural acoustics, Reverberation and Sabine's formula.


Physical Optics: Theories of light; Interference of light, Young's double slit experiment, Displacement of fringes and its uses, Fresnel Bi-prism, Interference at wedge shaped films, Newton's rings, Interferometers; Diffraction of light; Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffractions, Diffraction by single slit, Diffraction from a circular aperture, Resolving power of optical instruments, Diffraction at double slit and N-slits-diffraction grating; Polarization; Production and analysis of polarized light, Brewster's Law, Malus’ Law, Polarization by double refraction, Retardation plates, Nicol prism, Optical activity , Polarimeters, Polaroid.