**Phy 109: **** Heat & Thermodynamics, Structure of Matter, Waves & Oscillations and Physical Optics**

*
Heat & Thermodynamics:**
Principle of temperature measurements: Platinum resistance thermometer,
Thermo-electric thermometer, Pyrometer; Kinetic theory of gases: Maxwell's
distribution of molecular speeds, Mean free path, Equipartition of energy,
Brownian motion, Van der Waal's equation of state, Review of the First Law of
Thermodynamics and its application, Reversible and irreversible processes,
Second Law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle; Efficiency of heat engines, Carnots
theorem, Entropy and disorder, Thermodynamic functions, Maxwell relations,
Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Gibbs phase rule, Third Law of Thermodynamics.*

*Structure of Matter:** Crystalline
and non-crystalline solids, Single crystal and polycrystal solids, Unit cell,
Crystal systems, Co-ordinations number, Crystal planes and directions, NaCl and
CsCl structure, Packing factor, Miller indices, Relation between interplanar
spacing and Miller indices, Bragg's Law, Methods of determination of interplanar
spacing from diffraction patterns; Defects in solids: Point defects, Line
defects; Bonds in solids, Interatomic distances, Calculation of cohesive and
bonding energy; Introduction to band theory: Distinction between metal,
Semiconductor and insulator.*

*Waves & Oscillations**: Differential equation of a simple harmonic oscillator, Total energy
and average energy, Combination of simple harmonic oscillations, Lissajous
figures, Spring- mass system, Calculation of time period of torsional pendulum,
Damped oscillation, Determination of damping co-efficient. Forced oscillation,
Resonance, Two-body oscillations, Reduced mass, Differential equation of a
progressive wave, Power and intensity of wave motion, Stationary wave, Group
velocity and phase velocity, Architectural acoustics, Reverberation and
Sabine's formula.*

*Physical Optics:** Theories of light; Interference of light, Young's double slit experiment, Displacement of fringes and its uses, Fresnel Bi-prism, Interference at wedge shaped films, Newton's rings, Interferometers; Diffraction of light; Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffractions, Diffraction by single slit, Diffraction from a circular aperture, Resolving power of optical instruments, Diffraction at double slit and N-slits-diffraction grating; Polarization; Production and analysis of polarized light, Brewster's Law, Malus’ Law, Polarization by double refraction, Retardation plates, Nicol prism, Optical activity , Polarimeters, Polaroid.*