**Phy 101: Physical Optics, Waves & Oscillations and Heat & Thermodynamics**

**Credit Hours: 3:00 (Level-1, Term-1, CE)**

*Physical Optics**: Theories of light; Interference of light, Young's double slit experiment, Displacement of fringes and its uses, Fresnel Bi-prism, Interference at wedge shaped films, Newton's rings, Interferometers; Diffraction of light; Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, Diffraction by single slit, Diffraction from a circular aperture, Resolving power of optical instruments, Diffraction at double slit and N-slits-diffraction grating; Polarization; Production and analysis of polarized light, Brewster's Law, Malus Law, Polarization by double refraction, Retardation plates, Nicol prism, Optical activity , Polarimeters, Polaroid.*

*Waves & Oscillations**: Differential equation of a Simple Harmonic Oscillator, total energy and average energy, Combination of simple harmonic oscillations, Lissajous figures, spring- mass system, Calculation of time period of torsional pendulum, Damped oscillation, Determination of damping co-efficient. Forced oscillation, Resonance, Two-body oscillations, Reduced mass, Differential equation of a progressive wave, Power and intensity of wave motion, Stationary wave, Group velocity and phase velocity, Architectural acoustics, Reverberation and Sabine's formula.*

*Heat & Thermodynamics:** Principle of temperature measurements: Platinum resistance thermometer, Thermo-electric thermometer, Pyrometer; Kinetic theory of gases: Maxwell's distribution of molecular speeds, Mean free path, Equipartition of energy, Brownian motion, Van der Waal's equation of state, Review of the First Law of Thermodynamics and its application, Reversible and irreversible processes, Second Law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle; Efficiency of heat engines, Carnots theorem, Entropy and disorder, Thermodynamic functions, Maxwell relations, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, Gibbs phase rule, Third Law of Thermodynamics.*