**Phy 121: Waves & Oscillations, Optics and Thermal Physics**

**Credit Hours 3.00 (Level-1, Term-1, EEE)**

**Waves & Oscillations**: Differential equation of simple harmonic oscillator, Total energy and average energy, Combination of simple harmonic oscillations, Spring mass system, Torsional pendulum; Two body oscillation, Reduced mass, Damped oscillation, Forced oscillation, Resonance; Progressive wave, Power and intensity of wave, Stationary wave, Group and phase velocities.

**Optics**: Defects of images: Spherical aberration, Astigmatism, Coma, Distortion, Curvature, Chromatic aberration. Theories of light; Interference of light: Young's double slit experiment, Displacements of fringes and its uses, Fresnel bi-prism, Interference in thin films, Newton's rings, Interferometers; Diffraction: Diffraction by single slit, Diffraction from a circular aperture, Resolving power of optical instruments, Diffraction at double slit and N-slits, Diffraction grating; Polarization: Production and analysis of polarized light, Brewster's Law, Malus Law, Polarization by double refraction, Nicol prism, Optical activity, Polarimeters.

**Thermal Physics**: Heat and work- the first Law of Thermodynamics and its applications; Kinetic theory of gases - kinetic interpretation of temperature, Specific heats of ideal gases, Equipartition of energy, Mean free path, Maxwell's distribution of molecular speeds, Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot's cycle, Second Law of Thermodynamics, Carnot's theorem, Entropy, Thermodynamic functions, Maxwell relations, Clausius and Clapeyron equation.